The following are resources of significant research on Infrared Saunas.

References for Far-Infrared Therapy:

Detoxification of Environmental Toxins and Drug Residues

Gard, Zane R., MD and Erma J. Brown, BSN, PHD. “History of Sauna/Hyperthermia Past and Present Efficacy in Detoxification.” Townsend Letter for Doctors, June 1992 470-478, July 1992 650-660, Oct 1992 846-854, Aug/Sept 1999 76-86. References 201-334.

Hubbard, L. Ron. Clear Body, Clear Mind. Los Angeles, CA: Bridge Publications, 1990.

McVicker, M. Sauna Detoxification Therapy. McFarland & Co, Box 611, Jefferson, NC 28640, 1997.

Oosterveld, FGJ., JJ Rasker, MAF van de Laar, GJ Koel. “Clinical Effects of Infrared Whole-body

Hyperthermia in Patients with Rheumatic Diseases.” Departments of Rheumatology and Physiotherapy,

Metisch Spectrum Twente and University Twente Enschede, P.O. Box 50000, 7500 KA Eschede, The Netherlands.

Perera.FP. “Environment and Cancer: Who are Susceptible?” Science 278:1068-73, Nov 7, 1997. (95 of cancer is environment and diet)

Rea, WJ. Thermal Chamber Depuration and Physical Therapy in: Chemical Sensitivity, Volume 4, chapter 35, pp 2433-2479. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1997.

Root, David E., M.D., M.P.H., H.T.H. “Reducing Toxic Body Burdens Advancing in Innovative Technique.” Occupational Health and Safety News Digest 2, 4 (April 1986).

Schnare, David W., Max Ben, and Megan G. Shields. “Body Burden Reductions ofPCB, PBBs and Chlorinated Pesticides in Human Subjects.” Ambio 13, 5-6 (1984) 378-380.

Schnare, David W., G. Denk, M. Sheilds, S. Brunton. “Evaluation of a Detoxification Regimen for Fat Stored Xenobiotics.” Med Hypoth,9:265-82, 1982.

Vree, T.B.,Johnson,W.T. et al. “Excretion of Amphetamines in Human Sweat”, Arch. fat. Pharmacodyn. 199:311-317,1972.

Effects of Renal Excretion with Heat Stimulus

Czamowski D., J. Gorski, et al. “Excretion of nitrogen compounds in sweat during sauna.” Pol Tyg Lek 1991 Feb 18-Mar4; 46 (8-10): 186-7.

Vanakoski, J. and T. Seppala. “Renal excretion of the tetracycline is transiently decreased during short-term heat exposure.” fat J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1997 May; 35 (5): 204-7.

Cobum, T., FS Vom Saal, AM Soto. “Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in Wildlife and Humans.” Environmental Health Perspective. 101:378-84, 1993.

Gumener, PI, Kaisina, 0V, Nadezhina, LG, Shumkova, TV. “The individual measuring of the health- promoting impact of the sauna on preschoolers.” Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult 1994 Sept-Oct (5): 32-5.

Jenssen, TG, Haukland, HH, Burhol, PG. “Brain-gut peptides in sauna-induced hyperthermia.” Acta Physiol Scand. 1988 April; 132(4): 519-523.

Jezova, D., R. Kvetnansky, M. Vigas. “Sex differences in endocrine response to hyperthermia in sauna.” Acta Physiol Scand. 1994 March; 150(3): 293-8.

Jokinen, E., I. Valimaki, J. Mamiemi, A. Seppanen,, K. Irjala, 0. Simell. “Children in sauna: hormonal adjustments to intensive short thermal stress.” Acta Physiol Scand. 1991 July: 142(3):437-42.

Kukkonen-Harjula, K. and K. Jkauppinen. “How the sauna affects the endocrine system.” Ann Clin Res. 19988; 20(4): 262-6.

Strbak, V., P. Tatr, R. Angyal, V. Strec, K. Aksamitova, M. Vigas, H. Janosova. “Effects of sauna and glucose intake on TSH and thyroid hormone levels in plasma ofeuthyroid subjects.” Metabolism, H.T.H. 1987 May; 36(5): 426-31.

Vescovi, PP and V. Coiro. “Hyperthermia and endorphins.” Biomed Pharmacother; 47(8): 301-4, 1993.

Effects of Heat Stress and Infrared on the Immune System

Danno, K. and N. Sugie. “Effects of near-infrared radiation on the epidermal proliferation and cutaneous immune function in mice.” Photodermal Photoimmunol Photomed. 1996 Dec; 12(6): 233-6.

Didierjean, L., D. Gruaz, Y. Frobert, J. Grassi, JM Dayer, JH Saurat. “Biologically active interleukin in human eccrine sweat: site dependent variations in alpha/beta ratios and stress-induced increased excretion.” Cytokine. 1990 Nov; 2(6): 438-46.

Ernst, E. Pecho, P. Wirz, T. Saradeth. “Regular sauna bathing and the incidence of common colds.” Ann Med. 1990; 22(4): 225-7.

Niwa, Y., 0. Lizawa, K. Ishimoto, X. Jiang, T. Kanoh. “Electromagnetic wave emitting products and ‘Kikoh’ potentiate human leukocyte functions.” fat J Biometeorol. 1993 Sept; 37(5): 133-8.

The Use of Sweat for Evaluation of Mercury and Metal Toxicity

CSIRO, Division of Energy Chemistry, NSW, Australia. “A comparative study of copper, lead, cadmium, and zinc in human sweat and blood.” Sci Total Environ. 1988 Aug 1; 74: 235-47.

Lovejoy, HB., ZG Bell, TR Vizena. “Mercury exposure evaluations and their correlation with urine mercury excretion: 4. Elimination of mercury by sweating.” JOccupMed. 1973:15:590-591.

Parpalei, LA., LG Prokofeva, VG Obertas. “The use of the sauna for disease prevention in the workers of enterprises with chemical and physical occupational hazards.” Vrach Delo. 1991 May; (5): 93-5.

Sherson, DL and W. Stopford. “Mercury levels of sweat. Its use in the diagnosis and treatment of poisoning.” Ugeskr Laeger. 1986 June 30; 148(27): 1682-4.

Percutaneous Absorption of Metals and Drugs Stauber, JL, TM Florence, BL Gulson, LS Dale. “Percutaneous absorption of inorganic lead compounds.” Sci Total Environ. 1994 May 2; 145(1-2): 55-70.

Vanakoski, J., T. Seppala, E. Sievi, E. Lunell. “Exposure to high ambient temperature increases absorption and plasma concentrations oftransdermal nicotine.” Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1996 Sept

Detoxification of Chemicals Via Sweat

Rea, WJ., Y. Pan and AR Johnson. “Clearing of toxic volatile hydrocarbons from humans.” Bol Asoc Med PR. 1991 July; 83(7): 321-4.

Rea, WJ., GH Ross, AR Johnson, RE Amiley, EJ Fenyes. “Chemical sensitivity in physicians.” Bol Asoc Med PR. 1991 Sept; 83(9): 383-8.

Kilbum, KH., RH Warsaw, MG Shileds. “Neurobehavioral dysfunction in firemen exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): possible improvement after detoxification.” Arch Environ Health. 1989 Nov-Dec; 44(6): 345-50.

Krop, J. “Chemical sensitivity after intoxication at work with solvents: response to sauna therapy.” J Altem Complement Med. Spring 1998; 4(1): 77-86.

Healing of Wounds With Infrared

Jiang, P. and L. Luo. “The effect of far infrared rays on the survival of randomized skin flap in the rat: an experimental study.” ChungKuo Hsiu Fu Chung HTH Chien Wai Ko Tsa Chih. 1997 Mar; 11(2): 69-71.

Tolstykh, PI., AV Gertsen, VI Eliseenko, Sarasek LUK. “Stimulation of the healing of asceptic wounds using laser irradiation.” Khirurgiia (Mosk). 1991 July; 7: 37-40.

Treatment of Hypertension and Congestive Heart Failure With Heat Stress and Infrared

Siewert, C., H. Siewert, HJ Winterfield, D. Strangefeld. “The behavior of central and peripheral hemodynamics in isometric and dynamic stress in hypertensive patients treatment with regular sauna therapy.” Z Kardiol. 1994 Sept; 83(9): 652-7.

Tei, C., Y. Horikiri, JC Park, JW Jeong, KS Chang, Y. Toyama, N. Tanaka. “Acute Hemodynamic improvement by thermal by thermal vasodilatation in congestive heart failure.” Circulation. 1995 May 15; 91(10): 2582-90.

Tei, C., Y. Horikiri, JC Park, JW Jeong, KS Chang, Y. Toyama, H.T.H. Tanaka. “Effects of hot water bath or sauna on patients with congestive heart failure: acute hemodynamic improvement by thermal vasolidation.” J Cardiol. 1994 May-June; 24(3): 175-83.

Winterfeld, HJ., H. Siewert, D. Strangeld, H. Wamke, J. Kruse, U. Engelmann. “Potential use of the sauna in the long-term treatment of hypertensive cardiovascular circulation disorders-a comparison with kinesiotherapy.” Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 1992 Aug 25; 81(35): 1016-20.

Heat and Fever

Dritschilo, A., et al. “Therapeutic implications of heat as related to radiation therapy.” Semin Oncol. 1981 March; 8(1): 83-91.

Helamaa, E. and E. Aikas. “The secret of good ‘loyly’.” Ann din Res. 1988; 20(4): 224-9.

Molimard. “Physiopathology of fever.” Concours Med. 1996 Dec 4; 87(49): 7255-8.

Moltz.H. “Causes and Consequences.” Neurosci Biobehav Rev Fall. 1993; 17(3): 237-69.

Morimoto, A., et al. “Multiple control of fever production in the central nervous system of rabbits.” J Physiol (Lond). 1988 March; 397: 269-80.

Palmes, ED. et al., “The regulation of body temperature during fever.” Arch Environ Health. 1965 Dec; 11(6): 749-59.

Varanovskil, IM. “On the use of infrared techniques in medicine.” Voen Med Zh. 1967 Dec; 12: 36-9.

Wiedemann.E. “Heat as a remedy.” Landarzt. 1965 Nov 20; 44(32): 1586-90.

Zeisberger, E., et al. “Neurobiological Concepts of Fever Generation and Suppression.” Neuropsychobiology. 1993; 28(1-2): 106-9. of natural immunological reactivity of workers.” Gig Tr Prof Zabol. 1970 Jan; 14(1): 22-6.

Biological Activities of Infrared

Honda, K. and S. Inoue. “Sleep-enhancing effects of far-infrared radiation in rats.” mt J Biometeorol. 1988 Jun; 32(2): 92-4.

Inoue, S. and M. Kabaya. “Biological activities caused by far-infrared radiation.” mt J Biometeorol 1989 Oct; 33(3): 145-50.

Activation of Supplements With Infrared

Niwa, Y., Y. Miyachi, K. Ishimoto, T. Kanoh. “Why are natural plant medicinal effective in some patients and not in others with the same disease.” Plant Med. 1991 Aug; 57(4): 299-304.

Niwa, Y. “Oxidative injury and its defense system in vivo.” Rinsho Byori 1999 Mar; 47(3): 189-209.

Niwa, Y., K. Tominaga, K. Yoshida. “Successful treatment of severe atopic dermatitis-complicated cataract and male infertility with a natural product antioxidant.” mt J Tissue React. 1998 20; 2: 63-9.

Yoshikawa, M., et al. “Chemical fluctuation of the constituents during the drying if Ginseng radix and Ginseng radix Rubra. Crude drug processing by far-infrared treatment.” Yakugaku Zasshi. 1993 June; 113(6); 460-7.

Heat and Enzyme Activity With Infrared

Ogita, S., et al. “Effects of far-infrared radiation on lactation.” Ann Physiol Anthropol. 1990 April; 9(2): 83-91.

Thermal regulation With Heat Stress and Infrared

Antonaci, F., et al. “Sweating patterns in humans:IL Heat induced forehand sweating and cutanious temperature in healthy individuals.” Funct Neurol. 1988 Apr-Jun; 3(2): 2217-24.

Flickstein, A., PhD. “Infrared Thermal System for Whole-body Regenerative Radiant Therapy.” Dascom Graphics; Santa Fe Springs: 1997.

Kaderavek, F. “Thermoregulatory changes during application of infrared radiation.” Fysiatr Revmatol Vestn. HTH 1965 Sept: 43 (5): 301-9.

Kaderavek, R. “Absorption and heat transport during application of infrared radiation.” Fysiatr Revmatol Vestn. 1973 Feb; 51 (I): 14-20. Lustinec K. “Sweat rate, its prediction and interpretation.” Arch Sci Physiol (Paris). 1973; 27 (2): 127-36.

Kaidbey, KH., et al. “The influence of infrared radiation on short-term ultraviolet-radiation-induced injuries.” Arch DermatoL. 1982 May; 118(5): 315-8.

Kuz’min, VM. “Infrared radiation isolines as an indicator of the hygienic characteristics of the radiation microclimate.” Gig Tr Prof Zabol. 1971 June; 15(6) 11-4.

Libert, JP., et al. “Modifications of sweating responses to thermal transients following heat acclimation.” Eur J Appi Physiol. 1983; 50 (2): 235-46.

Linetskii, ML. “Thermoregulation under the effect of infrared radiation.” Gig Sanit 1965 July; 30 (7): 115-7.

Molchanov, IS. “The effects of low intensity infrared radiation on the organism.” Gig Tr Prof Zabol. 1968 Nov; 12(11):46-8.

Montgomery, PC. “The compounding effects of infrared and ultraviolet irradiation upon normal human skin.”Phys. Ther. 1973 May; 53 (5): 489-96.

Musin RF, et al. “Sensitivity of Human Skin to Infrared Heat Fluxes.” Doki Akad Nauk SSSR. 1986; 289 (3): 718-20.

Nadel, ER., et al. “Effect of skin wettedness on on sweat gland response.” Jappi Phusiol. 1973 Nov; 35 (5): 689-94.

Shafran, MB. “Effect of infrared heating on blood indices in swine.” Veterinariia. 1969 Feb; 46 (2): 89-90.

Yamazaki, T. “Science of far infrared wave therapies.” Man and History Co., Tokyo, Japan: 1987.

Zeientsova, SF. “Immunobiological reactivity of the organism under the effect of the interrupted infrared irradiation.” VrachDelo. 1968 Dec; 12:88-91.

Effects Of Infrared and Heat Stress on Skin

Baibekov, IM., et al. “The effects of low intensity infrared laser radiation on healing ofdermatological wounds.” Biull Eksp Biol Med. 1995 Feb; 119(2): 218-24

Chemiaev, IS. “Investigation of the permeability of human skin to infrared radiation.” Gig Sanit. 1965 Dec; 30(12): 20-4.

Gubemskii, ID., et al. “Health standardization of infrared radiation in panel-radiation heating of homes and public buildings.” Gig Sanit, HTH. 1972 Aug; 37(8): 22-7.

Hmjak, M. “The effect of infrared irradiation on the human body.” Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 1985 Jun; 36(2): 201-18.

Inoue, S., et al. “Biological activities caused by far-infrared radiation.” Int J Biometeorol. 1989 Oct; 33(3):145-150.

Ise, N., T. Katsuura, Y. Kikuchi, E. Miwa. “Effect of far-infrared radiation on forearm skin blood flow.” Ann Physiol Anthropol. 1987 Jan; 6(1): 31-32.

Junaid, AJ. “Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis with infrared heat.” Int J Dermatol. 1986 Sep; 25(7): 470-2.

Katsuura, T., K. Nakano, Y. Sano, A. Okada, Y. Kikuchi. “Influence of native place on forearm bloofflow at rest and during exercise in dry and humid heat.” Ann Physiol Anthropol. 1985 Apr; 4(2): 175-7.

Khish, IP. “Effect of low doses of infrared radiation on the sympathetic-adrenal system of children.” Pediatr Akush Ginekol 1973; 6: 23-4.

Manner, JB., et al. “Combined radiation and hyperthermia in superficial human tumors.” Cancer. 1980 Nov 1;46(9): 1986-91.

Unknown Author. “Sunlight, ultraviolet radiation, and the skin.” Nat’1 hist Health Consens Statement. 1989 May 8-10; 7(8): 1-10.

Wyss, V. “On the effects of radiant heat on different regions of the human body. Behavior ofcardiocirculatory and respiratory activity, oxygen consumption, oral and skin temperature during infrared radiation of different areas in acclimatized HTH and non-acclimatized subjects.” Med Lav. 1966 Apr; 57(4): 262-85.

Infrared and Its Effects Upon the Eye

Molchanov, IS., et al. “Use of low-intensity infrared radiation for the prevention ofcatarrhal diseases.” Gig Tr Prof Zabol. 1976 Sept; (9): 42-43.

Bioeffects of Sauna Therapy on the Human Body

Ahonen, E., et al. “Fluid balance and the sauna.” Duodecin. 1988; 104(8): 609-14.

Kauppinen, K., et al. “Man in the sauna.” Ann din Res. 1986; 18(4): 173-85.

Sealre.AJ. “Effects of the sauna.” JAMA. 1982 Jan 1; 247(1): 28.

Takada, K., Egawa, Y., Sasaki, H. Farlinfrared Ray. Japan: Jan 1999.


Amidon, Robert B. “Chemical Hazards in Law Enforcement,” Journal of California Law Enforcement 18, 3 (Summer 1984) 27-30.

Ashley, DL., MA Bonin, FL Cardinali, JM McCraw, JV Wooten. “Blood concentrations of volatile organic compounds in a non-occupationally exposed US population and in groups with suspected exposure.” Clin Biochem 1994:40(7): 1401-1404.

Bellinger, D., A. Leviton, C. Watemaux, H. Needleman, M. Rabinowitz. “Longitudinal analyses of prenatal and postnatal lead exposure and early cognitive development.” N. Engl. J. Med. 316: 1037-43, 1987.

Bergman, K. “Application and results of whole-body autoradiography in distribution studies of organic solvents.” CRC Crit Rev Toxicol. 1983; 12: 59-118.

Brain, JD., BD Beck, AJ Warren. Variation to Susceptibility to Inhaled Pollutants, John Hopkins University Press, 1988.

Cohn, James R., M.S., and Edward A. Emmett, M.B., B.S., M.S., F.R.A.C.P., H.T.H. “The Excretion of Trace Metals in Human Sweat,” Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science, 8, (4): 270-274, 1978.

Colucci, A.V., et al. “Pollutant Burdens and Biological Response,” Arch. Environ. Health 27: 151-154, 1973.

Cunliff, W.J., et al, “The Effect of Local Temperature Variations on the Sebum Excretion Rate,” Brit. J. of Derm. 83: 650-654, 1970.

Davey, P. and P. Shearer. “Hypersensitivity caused by environmental chemicals, in particular, pesticides.” Clin Ecology. 1986:4:35-39.

EPA. Characterization ofHRGC/MS Unidentified Peaks from the Analysis of Human Adipose Tissue. EPA-560/5-87-002A, May 1987.

Findlay, G.M. and deFreitas, A.S.W., “DDT Movement from Adipocyte to Muscle Cells During Lipid Utilization”, Nature 229: 63-65, 1971.

Heckbert, SR., WT Longstreth, CD Furberg, et al. “The Association ofAntihypersensitive Agents with MRI White Matter Findings and with Modified Stortbecker, P. Dental Caries as a Cause of Nervous Disorders, Bio-Probe, Inc. PO Box 58010, Orlando FL 32858-0160.

Heuser, C. and A. Vojdani. “Enhancement of Natural Killer Cell Activity and T and B Cell Function by Buffered Vitamin C (ultra potent-C), in Patients Exposed to Toxic Chemicals: the Role of Protein Kinase-C.”Immunopharmacol Immunotoxical 19:291, 1997.

Hueser, Gunmar, M.D. “Diagnostic Markers in Clinical Immunotoxicology and Neurotoxicology.” Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology 1. 4 (1992).

Kilbum, Kaye H., M.D. “Is the Human Nervous System Most Sensitive to Environmental Toxins?” Archives of Environmental Health 44, 6 (Nov./Dec. 1989) 343-344.

Kraul, I., and P. Karlong. “Persistent Organochlorinated Compounds in Human Organs Collected in Denmark 1972-1973”, Acta Pharmacol. Toxicol, 38: 38-48, 1976.

Krop, J.,and J. Swierczek. “Patient with severe intractable asthma, urticaria and irritable bowel syndrome: Response to sauna therapy.” Clin Ecology. 1987/88; 5: 136-139.

Lieberman, AD., MR Craven. “Reactive Intestinal Dysfunction (RIDS) Caused by Chemical Exposures,” Arch Environ Health, 53; 5:354-8, 1998.

Metcalf, R.L., J. Sanbom, P. Lu, and D. Nye. “Laboratory Model Ecosystem Studies of the Degradation and Fate ofRadiolabeled Tri-, Tetra-, and Pentachlorobiphenyl Compared with DDE”, Arch. Environ. Contain. 3:151-163,1971.

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Roehm, Dan Christian. “Effects of a Program of Sauna Baths and Megavitamins on Adipose DDE and PCBs and on Clearing of Symptoms of Agent Orange (Dioxin) Toxicity.” Clinical Research 31,2 (1983) 243A.

Root, David E., M.D., M.P.H. and Gerald T. Lionelli, B.S. “Excretion of a Lipophilic Toxicant Through the Sebaceous Glands: A Case Report.” Journal of Toxicology 6,1 HTH(1987) 13-17.

Schnare, David W., and Robinson, P.C. “Reduction ofHexachlorobenzene and Polychlorinated Biphenyl Human Body Burdens.” International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, Scientific Publications Series, Vol. 77, Oxford University Press, 1985.

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Wolff, Mary S., Ph.D., Henry A. Anderson, M.D., K.D. Rosenman, and Irving J. Selikoff, M.D. “Equilibrium ofPolybrominated Biphenyl (PBB) Residues in Serum and Fat of Michigan Residents.” Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 21, 6 (1979) 775-781.

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